John Kay 17 June — c. He is often confused with his namesake  who built the first "spinning frame".
His yeoman farmer father, Robert, owned the "Park" estate in Walmersley, and John was born there. He apprenticed with a hand-loom reed maker, but is said to have returned home within a month claiming to have mastered the business.
John's wife was Anne Holte. In Bury he continued to design improvements to textile machinery; in he patented a cording and twisting machine for worsted. In he received a patent for his most revolutionary device: a "wheeled shuttle " for the hand loom. Kay always called this invention a "wheeled shuttle", but others used the name "fly-shuttle" and later, "flying shuttle" because of its continuous speed, especially when a young worker was using it in a narrow loom.
The shuttle was described as travelling at "a speed which cannot be imagined, so great that the shuttle can only be seen like a tiny cloud which disappears the same instant. In JulyKay formed a partnership in ColchesterEssex to begin fly-shuttle manufacturing. The flying shuttle was to create a particular imbalance by doubling weaving productivity without changing the rate at which thread could be spun,  disrupting spinners and weavers alike.
Kay tried to promote the fly-shuttle in Bury, but could not convince the woollen manufacturers that it was sufficiently robust; he spent the next two years improving the technology, until it had several advantages over the device specified in the patent.
This was to be one of his difficulties in the coming patent disputes. In Kay went to Leedswhere his problem had become royalty collection  the annual licence fee was 15 Shillings per shuttle. Kay and, initially, his partners launched numerous patent infringement lawsuits, but if any of these cases were successful,  compensation was below the cost of prosecution.
Rather than capitulate, the manufacturers formed "the Shuttle Club", a syndicate which paid the costs of any member brought to court; their strategy of patent piracy and mutual indemnification nearly bankrupted Kay.
Inhe and Joseph Stell patented a machine for cloth ribbon weavingwhich they anticipated might be worked by water wheel but they were unable to advance their plans because of Kay's legal costs.
Kay remained inventive; in he was working on an efficient method of salt production,  and designing improvements to spinning technology — but that made him unpopular among Bury spinners. He had suffered violent treatment in England, but he did not leave the country on that account, but because of his inability to enforce or profit from his patent rights.
He went to Paris, and throughout negotiated with the French Government in English to sell them his technology.Vimek 404
Denied the huge lump sum he wanted, Kay finally agreed to 3, livres plus a pension of 2, livre annually from in exchange for his patent, and instruction in its use to the manufactures of Normandy.
He retained the sole rights to shuttle production in France,  and brought three of his sons to Paris to make them. Although wary of entering the manufacturing provinces because of his experiences with rioting weavers in England he was prevailed upon to do so. At one time, the French authorities may have discouraged his communication with England,  but Kay wrote about the unanticipated use of his technology in England to the French government: "My new shuttles are also used in England to make all sorts of narrow woollen goods, although their use could have been more perfect had the weavers consulted me ".Thus, John's mother was responsible for educating him until she remarried.
John Kay was just a young man when he became the manager of one of his father's mills.Pressure syringe
He developed skills as a machinist and engineer and made many improvements to the machines in the mill. After traveling the country making, fitting, and selling his wire reeds, Kay returned home and, in Junemarried a woman from Bury. The flying shuttle was an improvement to the loom that enabled weavers to work faster.
The original tool contained a bobbin onto which the weft crossways yarn was wound.
John Kay (flying shuttle)
It was normally pushed from one side of the warp the series of yarns that extended lengthways in a loom to the other side by hand. Because of this, large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle. Alternatively, Kay's flying shuttle was thrown by a lever that could be operated by just one weaver.
The shuttle was able to do the work of two people—and more quickly. These innovations were not without consequences, however. InKay's home was attacked by textile workers who were angry that his inventions might take work away from them. Kay ultimately fled England for France where he died in poverty around Inhe developed the "drop-box," which enabled looms to use multiple flying shuttles at the same time, allowing for multicolor wefts.
In Bury, Kay has become a local hero. Share Flipboard Email. Mary Bellis. Inventions Expert. Mary Bellis covered inventions and inventors for ThoughtCo for 18 years. She is known for her independent films and documentaries, including one about Alexander Graham Bell.
Updated November 19, Jim Ahrens laid the foundation for a tradition of innovative hand loom designs chosen to reduce time and effort and maximize professional results. I absolutely love the air assist flyshuttle. As a production weaver, the wear and tear on my body from weaving every day was getting fairly extreme.
I had developed carpal tunnel, was in near constant pain. My doctor and I had been discussing surgery. Since adding this feature to my loom all signs of it have gone away. I can now happily weave for hours on end completly pain free. The installation was a little scary at first, but on end it was actually pretty easy and straight forward. I highly recomend this feature to anyone considering it. I already had the book, but was having trouble getting the concepts in my head.
This class made it all "click". It was also helpful to see what the other students were doing. It was great to see so many color combinations without having to put them all into WeavePoint myself. I learned really important details about how the loom works, and about routine maintenance, that simply are not in the manual. I can now recognize potential problems and make the small adjustments needed to fix them!
It was also a nice opportunity to try out a variety of AVLs and a good quick introduction to WeavePoint which I switched to after this course. Sign up to get the latest updates on equipment, promotions, and blog articles from AVL Looms. Close search. Pause slideshow Play slideshow. Introducing the K-Series The next step in handloom innovation Play video. Play video. Featured Collections. Reconditioned Looms. Warping Equipment.
A Tradition of Innovation Jim Ahrens laid the foundation for a tradition of innovative hand loom designs chosen to reduce time and effort and maximize professional results.
As the number of cases identified in the Uni March 21, Barb Lynn is the owner and operator of Wildrose Textiles, a production handweaving studio nestled in the mountains of Northwest Colorado. February 13, Ruth Scheuing is an artist who works in textiles, with a focus on how textiles communicate through patterns, as language and mythology and how the View all.This application is a continuation-in-part of our earlier application Ser.
In an ordinary fly shuttle loom, shuttle boxes are provided at each end with binders, normally leatherlined, to decelerate the shuttle on entering the box. In the ordinary loom this binder is a pivoted, rigid element which is under spring tension.
Because of the relatively low friction on the shuttle the picker stick can overshoot, both on the forward movement of the shuttle and on the movement of the picker stick from an incoming shuttle. This normally requires a bumper on the loom and check straps for each picker stick.
The relatively low friction also results in more noise in the shuttle box and greater transmission of vibrations to the loom frame through the rigid, pivoted binder.
An elastomer binder has been described in the British Pat. The elastomer is provided with slanted, oblong holes so that is is compressible from front to back. In most of the description the compressible elastomer is mounted on a rigid backplate, which may be pivoted, in other words, of the same design as has been referred to above in general for looms.
This portion of the patent, as will appear below, is not pertinent to the present invention. However, on page 2, in the paragraph beginning on line 31, there is a brief mention of an alternate structure in which the binder is wholly of resilient material and may be fixed. The patent makes it very clear that the braking force which decelerates the shuttle results from compression of the elastomer, made possible by the numerous slanted, oblong holes.
As far as noise is concerned, in the patent of Stahl and Cudworth, U.Lent resources
This noise reduction is of increasing importance because of more and more stringent noise pollution legislation, which in some locations makes ordinary fly shuttle looms legally unacceptable. The Stahl and Cudworth patent does not change the nature of the conventional binder except by elastomer lining to reduce noise and transmission of vibrations to the loom frame. The present invention is concerned with an improved binder for the shuttle boxes of fly shuttle looms. The binder is a single piece of resilient elastomer of high flex life which is attached to the shuttle box elements at both ends.
Instead of being pivoted, when a shuttle enters the shuttle box the binder bows out in the middle, exerting a powerful force against the shuttle which provides greater friction for decelerating an incoming shuttle and reducing picker stick overshoot.
Pit Loom in Weaving: Definition, Features Advantages and Disadvantages
The binder is, of course, lined with leather, as is conventional. Noise is reduced because there are no rigid elements connecting to the loom frame, and the increased friction on the shuttle makes it possible in some cases, when properly adjusted, to eliminate elements that are normally needed with a conventional pivoted binder.
These elements, for example, are loom side bumper for the picker stick on its forward throw and check straps restraining the motion of the picker stick on its reverse movement. Under favorable conditions and under proper adjustment in many cases these elements can be eliminated by the present invention without, of course, eliminating their function.
The greatly increased friction exerted on the shuttle by the bowing of the binder also reduces vibration in the loom operation and, due to the inherent properties of the binder material, transmission of vibrations or noise is reduced. The present invention is not limited in its broadest aspects to a loom in which loom side picker stick bumpers and picker stick check straps are eliminated but in a more preferred specific aspect the elimination of these elements without eliminating their function is included in the invention.
It should be noted that the binder of the present invention behaves essentially as a solid elastomer and is not compressible to a degree which exerts a significant force on the shuttle, the only effective force being the bowing or flexing of the elastomer when the shuttle enters the box.Flying shuttleMachine that represented an important step toward automatic weaving.How to dupe in bgs
It was invented by John Kay in In previous loomsthe shuttle was thrown, or passed, through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them. Kay mounted his shuttle on wheels in a track and used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord. Using the flying shuttle, one weaver could weave fabrics of any width more quickly than two could before.
Flying shuttle.Bootstrap registration form with dropdown
Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Flying shuttle weaving. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The first decisive step toward automation of the loom was the invention of the flying shuttle, patented in by the Englishman John Kay. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Kay was a weaver of broadloom fabrics, which, because of their width, required two weavers to sit side by….
Mechanical spinners produced in and by Sir Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton encouraged development of…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox!
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More About.My Quest for Rocker Beater Looms. I began researching the evolution of weaving and the history of loom development when I acquired, and restored, my great grandmother's old rocker beater loom as part of a master's thesis project. I started out by reviewing the standard loom literature but was unable to find any reference to the rocker beater element. So, in an all-out effort to locate information on this component, I began contacting museums, loom authorities, and weaving guilds in the United States and abroad.
I also began locating additional looms - which turned out to be a less difficult task than locating specific information on the style. I found numerous rocker beater looms, but only three published references about them. The first reference was a newspaper article written by my great aunt concerning another old loom in our family, " The Lamb loom: Historic museum piece dates back to ," published in the Crittenden County Kentucky Press October 11,p.
The second reference I found was in a magazine article, " Weaving at Locust Grove " from Handweaver and Craftsman19, p. The third reference was a written description of a rocker beater loom in Allen Eaton's Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands"The old looms were of two general types: those in which all the apparatus was swung in the upper part of the frame; and a much less frequently used type called the cradle-rock loom, in which part of the mechanism, including the beating apparatus operated on a rocker below"p.
The rocker beater loom is classified as a standing beater loom as opposed to a hanging beater loom. Therefore, the development of the standing beater loom has also been part of my research. Efforts to combine automatic power and the hanging beater had failed, because the awkward motions of the beater led to frequent warp breakages which closed down the entire system until individual threads were retied.
Despite this problem, it was hard to envision a weaving process which excluded the hanging beater. Making use of what he learned, he then went on to produce several additional looms. In doing extensive research, however, I eventually found a reference to a standing beater loom which predates Cartwright's loom. Eric Broudy's Book Of Looms provides an additional reference, a picture of an early American version of the standing beater loom, along with this explanation: "sometime during the nineteenth century … the beater, which had swung from an over-head bar since medieval times was flipped upside down and pivoted on pins in the lower side bars … called the ' little rocking loom ' in the Southern Highlands of Appalachia, that became the prototype for the contemporary treadle loom used by most handweavers today.
My search for additional rocker beater looms was, and continues to be, quite successful 60 as of April, I started photographing and documenting the looms myself, and found that most loom owners have little background information on their looms, or on the style.
The owners with the most information are those whose looms have remained within the original family -- and they usually have two things in common. First, their ancestors were either among the early settlers in southwestern Virginia, or they had been from points east typically Virginia or North Carolina and had passed through the area on their way to new states and territories that were opening to settlement during the late s and early s.Jump to navigation. Cyber Fiber classes are online weaving classes fully accessible on Weavolution.
Enroll in a Cyber Fiber class today! Check our calendar for fiber events or weaving workshops near you, or perhaps to visit while on holiday!
Browse many weaving books that have been published, bookmark the ones you own, or click on the links to buy where possible. Groups are a place for discussion. All discussions will occur in groups, which can be very specific or general in nature.
US4002187A - Fly shuttle loom shuttle box - Google Patents
Groups you have joined here. You can share yarn, projects, and drafts with your groups. Join in the ongiong discussions. Your projects all in one place. Look back at your fantastic weaving projects, add new notes and reference the notes you already made.
This will show all your drafts. This includes drafts you have created and those who have bookmarked.
Your fiber stash all in one place. Look back at your fantastic fiber, add new notes and reference the notes you already made. Thursday, Oct. He said for some reason previous owners sawed off the flying shuttle ends.
I believe he's got the company name wrong, though I will find out for sure tomorrow. Of course my research says Newcomb was the designer of the loom.
Did you ever get your questions answered about the loom you were going to pick up last October? I have one that I just restored.
I just finished my first 8 yard warp a couple days ago. I have a lot of photos of the restoration process on my blog, jennybellairs. I have one and am about to do the same. It happens that part of the mechanism flying shuttle is broken. It's cast iron and well, I don't use the shuttle anyways as the shafts don't raise the warp high enough it so gets stuck.
If anyone is interested in the shuttles, cans and stuff I hope to sell them. A couple of months ago I bought two Weaver's Delights. They were in un-fixable condition.
So I took them apart and now have a lot of pieces. If you need a part, send me a picture of the broken part and I may have a replacement part. You only have to pay for shipping. One was built around and the other around Lots of metal parts I'm trying to locate this part Anyone have or know where to get one, please call or text It looks like I may be about to inherit a weavers delight.
Sounds like it may have a couple issue so I may be looking for parts soon.
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